1949: Establishment of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) under the CCP led by Mao Zedong
1950 – 1953: Korean War
1952: Land reform essentially completed
1958: Great Leap Forward starts, setting up of people’s communes
1959: Uprising in Tibet leads to the flight of Dalai Lama to India
1960: The Soviet Union withdraws its experts as Sino-Soviet relations decline.
1962: Sino-Indian border war
1966 – 1976: Cultural Revolution
1969: Border clashes with the Soviet Union signal near total breakdown in relations
1971: The PRC joins the United Nations
Early 1970s: Many Western countries, Japan and others establish diplomatic relations with China
1972: US President Richard Nixon visits China in February
1976: Mao Zedong dies 9 September, radical “gang of four” falls 6 October
1978: Third Plenum of Eleventh Central Committee inaugurates reform policies and puts Deng Xiaoping in power (December).
1979: China and the United States establish formal diplomatic relations (1 January)
1980: Introduction of one-child-per-couple policy
1981: Central Committee condemns the Cultural Revolution and sharply criticizes Mao Zedong’s leadership
1989: Disturbances in Tibet (March). Student movement suppressed (4 June). Jiang Zemin become CCP general secretary (24 June)
1990: Uprising in Baren Township in Southwest Xinjiang
1991: Soviet Union disintegrates
1992: Journey to China’s south by Deng Xiaoping reaffirms reform policies
- Deng Xiaoping dies (19 February); Hong Kong returns to China (1 July)
1999: Macau returns to China (20 December)
2001: Islamist terrorism results in destruction of the World Trade Towers in New York (11 September).
2002: Hu Jintao replaces Jiang Zemin as president, while Wen Jiabao replaces Zhu Rongji as premier of the State Council.
2003: Hu Jintao replaces Jiang Zemin as CCP general secretary
2008: Beijing Olympics successful.
- July, riots occur in Urumqi, the Xinjiang capital.
2012: Xi Jinping replaces Hu Jintao as president, and Li Keqiang replaces Wen Jiabao as premier of the State Council
2013: Xi Jinping replaces Hu Jintao as general secretary of the CCP
2015: China excels in meeting Millennium Development Goals laid down by the United Nations in 2000; the proportion of those living in extreme poverty dropped from 61 per cent in 1990 to 4 per cent in 2015. China’s stock exchange experiences difficulties
2016: China’s one-child-per-couple policy is replaced by a two-children-per-couple policy